Sunday, May 24, 2020

Levels and Scales of Measurement in Statistics

Level of measurement refers to the particular way that a variable is measured within scientific research, and  scale of measurement refers to the particular tool that a researcher uses to sort the data in an organized way, depending on the level of measurement that they have selected. Choosing the level and scale of measurement are  important parts of the research design process  because they are necessary for systematized measuring and categorizing of data, and thus for analyzing it and drawing conclusions from it as well that are considered valid. Within science, there are four commonly used levels and scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. These were developed by  psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens, who wrote about them in a 1946 article in  Science, titled On the Theory of Scales of Measurement. Each level of measurement and its corresponding scale is able to measure one or more of the four properties of measurement, which include identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and a minimum value of zero. There is a hierarchy of these different levels of measurement. With the lower levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal), assumptions are typically less restrictive and data analyses are less sensitive. At each level of the hierarchy, the current level includes all the qualities of the one below it in addition to something new. In general, it is desirable to have higher levels of measurement (interval or ratio) rather than a lower one. Let’s examine each level of measurement and its corresponding scale in order from lowest to highest in the hierarchy. The Nominal Level and Scale A nominal scale is used to name the categories within the variables you use in your research. This kind of scale provides no ranking or ordering of values; it simply provides a name for each category within a variable so that you can track them among your data. Which is to say, it satisfies the measurement of identity, and identity alone. Common examples within sociology include the nominal tracking of  sex (male or female),  race  (white, Black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, etc.),  and class  (poor, working class, middle class, upper class). Of course, there are many other variables one can measure on a nominal scale. The nominal level of measurement is also known as a categorical measure  and is considered qualitative in nature. When doing statistical research and using this level of measurement, one would use the mode, or the most commonly occurring value, as a  measure of central tendency. The Ordinal Level and Scale Ordinal scales are used when a researcher wants to measure something that is not easily quantified, like feelings or opinions. Within such a scale the different values for a variable are progressively ordered, which is what makes the scale useful and informative. It satisfies both the properties of identity and of magnitude. However, it is important to note that as such a scale is not quantifiable—the precise differences between the variable categories are unknowable. Within sociology, ordinal scales are commonly used to measure peoples views and opinions on social issues,  like racism  and sexism, or how important certain issues are to them in the context of a political election. For example, if a researcher wants to measure the extent to which a population believes that racism is a problem, they could ask a question like How big a problem is racism in our society today? and provide the following response options: its a big problem, it is somewhat a problem, it is a small problem, and racism is not a problem. When using this level and scale of measurement, it is the median which denotes central tendency. The Interval Level and Scale Unlike nominal and ordinal scales, an interval scale is a numeric one that allows for ordering of variables  and provides a precise, quantifiable understanding of the differences between them (the intervals between them). This means that it satisfies the three properties of identity, magnitude,  and  equal intervals. Age is a common variable that sociologists track using an interval scale, like 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. One can also turn non-interval, ordered variable categories into an interval scale to aid  statistical analysis. For example,  it is common to measure income as a range, like $0-$9,999; $10,000-$19,999; $20,000-$29,000, and so on. These ranges can be turned into intervals that reflect the increasing level of income, by using 1 to signal the lowest category, 2 the next, then 3, etc. Interval scales are especially useful because they not only allow for measuring the frequency and percentage of variable categories within our data, they also allow us to calculate the  mean, in addition to the median, mode. Importantly, with the interval level of measurement, one can also calculate  the standard deviation. The Ratio Level and Scale The ratio scale of measurement is nearly the same as the interval scale, however, it differs in that it has an absolute value of zero, and so it is the only scale that satisfies all four properties of measurement. A sociologist would use a ratio scale to measure actual earned income in a given year, not divided into categorical ranges, but ranging from $0 upward. Anything that can be measured from absolute zero can be measured with a ratio scale, like for example the number of children a person has, the  number of elections a person has voted in, or the  number of friends who are of a race different from the respondent. One can run all the statistical operations as can be done with the interval scale, and even more with the ratio scale. In fact, it is so called because one can create ratios and fractions from the data when one uses a ratio level of measurement and scale. Updated  by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Design and Implementation of a Network Based Security...

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NETWORK BASED SECURITY INFORMATION SYSTEM TABLE OF CONTENTS Cover page Title page Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of contents 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Security information 2. Objectives 3. Justification CHAPTER TWO 2. Security concept 2.1 Definition of security 2. Security threats 3. Security Information CHAPTER THREE 3. Description of the exiting security information system 3.1 Organizational structure 2. Fact finding method 3. Objective of the existing system 4. Programs of the existing system 5. Equipment of the existing system 6. Forms CHAPTER FOUR 4. Design of the network-based security information system 4.1 Method of data†¦show more content†¦CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. SECURITY CONCEPT Security is defined in many ways due to the many contexts of its existence. In other words, security generally has to do with protection. It might be protection from undue access. Some attributes security to safe guiding from that, which may or may not lead to destruction. It might also be interesting to understand that security has to do with protection of the environment. It also has to do with valuables; this means that anything has to be secured must have value. Things of less importance to humanity and therefore anything that pose threat to life must also be prevented. Security is a very important issue in any organizations (system), no wonder VINCENT .E. ASOR in his seminar presentation at the Nigerian computer society’s conference of 2002 stated that an organization with 98 percent security is actually 100 percent insecure. This means that adequate security must be in place for a smooth running of an organizational affair or a system. The police, who is the cas e study organization here defined security in the police training manual as the protection of lives and property coupled with the maintenance of law and order in a society. 2.1 SECURITY THREATS They are criminal acts, which have a particular harmful effects onShow MoreRelatedInternet Censorship And The Internet Hackers1567 Words   |  7 Pages1 Background In our time and with the remarkable progress in the field of Internet, web sites can be considered the purpose and the main target for the Internet hackers. 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The key objective is to establishRead MoreSecurity Considerations For The Web1480 Words   |  6 Pages1.3 Security considerations for the Web [28] We can say that the World Wide Web it is basically represents the server and the client application these applications work via the Internet and TCP and IP intranets. On this basis, the approach will be discussed and user security tools which can be considered relevant to the security of the Web. But the Web presents new challenges not generally appreciated in the context of computer and network security: 1) Web servers can be considered asRead MoreDesign And Implementation Of A Defense Security Perimeter System1441 Words   |  6 PagesDesign and Implementation of a Defense Security Perimeter System Network security is becoming an increasingly important concern for small and midsize companies. 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This causes enormous threats; therefore, Security specialists and experts are continuously trying to find solutions for these kinds of threats through different methods like attack signatures and looking for methods to prevent them. Nevertheless, as solutions are formed, new types of threats emerge, for example spam mails, spywares, worms and Trojans just to mentionRead MoreLaw And Policy Case Study786 Words   |  4 PagesStudy Information security is often still playing in companies only a minor role. Many companies neglect aspects such as system misuse, sabotage or even espionage. But by now the reality has caught up with them. Straight from abroad there are more hacker attacks and espionage by competitors. Therefore, the law requires different approaches before to ensure information security. Companies must for example ensure that their information-processing systems are protected and kept safe. Information securityRead MoreResearch Examining a Previously-Developed Domain Model Security1755 Words   |  7 Pageshandled with a typical security plan and based on an individual authority. Together with the rising of shared sources, unauthorized accessibility to data by unlawful users additionally heightens, it has been essential to secure information via user validation and access control procedures (Yang, 2007). Domain Name Service (DNS) The explanation of domains usually presumes that there has been a system that allows a domain host to intercept communications. This type of system might permit domains toRead MoreBusiness Model For Information Security Essay1681 Words   |  7 PagesBusiness Model for Information Security (BMIS). The model manages information security by addressing the complexity of security. It consists of four construct; Organization Design and Strategy, People, Process and Technology which interact with each other (ISACA 2009). According to (Horvà ¡th, 2010) the model emphasizes the importance of an organization culture as applied to information security. In the creation of this culture the following are instituted: alignment of information security with business

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ethical Concerns Within Public Research - 928 Words

Ethics There are few ethical concerns within this research question. Firstly, it may be the case that the subjects can become distressed due to the sensitive nature of the research question. If at any point this occurs during the interview, I will switch off the recorder until the participant is ready to continue; if at all. If a participant wishes to withdraw at any point during the research, they will be able to do so freely. Each participant will be provided with a consent form, which they must sign before the study commences. They will also be provided with a copy of this consent form. Furthermore, a debrief form will be provided at the end of the research, which will illustrate my contact details. I will express that they are entirely welcome to contact me at any stage during and after the research if they have any other questions or concerns. With this in mind, each participant will be afforded extreme confidentiality and anonymity throughout the research. I am weary that the definition of confidentiality and anonymity is a fairly subjective term (Davies et al 2011). Therefore I will make it implicitly clear, on the consent and the brief form, that all names of each participant given to myself will be changed for the purposes of the research; regardless whether the names given were correct names or not. Furthermore, the interview recordings will only be heard by myself and my supervisor, if required. At the end of the research project all voice recordings will beShow MoreRelatedEthics Theory1635 Words   |  7 PagesEthical Treatment of Prisoners Name SOC120: Introduction to Ethics Social Responsibility Instructor: November 20, 2012 The life of prisoners some may never know. There are those who care not to know what goes on behind that wired fence. We find that some people that are convicted of crimes that they did not commit. Some people would rather turn their heads to what actually happens in a prison institution, because they feel it is no concernRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Public Administration System Essay814 Words   |  4 Pagesgrounded in duty. The nature, meaning and scopes of ethics have overgrown in the course of time. Ethics is thickened to public administration. In public administration, ethics concentrates on how the public administrator should question and reflect in order to be able to act responsibly. We can simply bisect the two by saying that ethics deals with morals and values, while public administration is full of actions and decisions. The levels of ethics in governance are devoted to historical, Social,Read MoreThe Three Major Factors Fueling International Technological Growth1271 Words   |  6 Pageseconomic. There are not many effective or efficient regulations which protect these technology growths, with the exception of telecommunications. As such, businesses seize opportunities – even unethical ones, to advance their firms. Legal and ethical issues relating to the internet and e-commerce include â€Å"cyber pirating†, trademark infringement and copyright. Businesses will â€Å"steal† the trademark or trade name of a well reputable company to attract unknowing consumers. Moreover, dot-com companiesRead MoreCoe of Ethics1625 Words   |  7 Pagesorganizations that follow their own mission with ethical values and company goals. The American Association for the Advancement of Science follows the mission statement of â€Å"advance science engineering, and innovations throughout the world for the benefit of all people.† (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2015) By following company goals, this statement can be reinforced. What are the organization’s goals and how are they tied to its ethical principles? 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There are two sides to every story and itRead MoreThe Ethical Values Of A Manager1153 Words   |  5 Pages  Often times the ethical values of a manager, business, or even nation are ignored when they place financial profits at risk.   Many nations have had to face these moral conflicts when dealing with substances, such as alcohol, drugs, and tobacco.   India is no different and like many developing and developed states, they were faced with the dilemma of the health risks related to tobacco use.   One of the ways to combat a product’s popularity is to limit the exposure of peoples to it by blocking theirRead MoreImmunizations And Vaccinations : A Hot To pic1426 Words   |  6 Pagesthe administration of vaccinations and immunizations in the United States. There are both legal and ethical issues surrounding the controversy, which include both deliberate and exogenous reasons not to vaccinate, and the mandatory nature that is required by many schooling districts and places of employment. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Endocrine Part Of The Pancreas - 1609 Words

The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of pancreatic islets (islets of the Langerhans). Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells of the pancreas. Both of these hormones are secreted depending on the blood glucose levels. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets secrete glucagon and beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin (Marieb, 2012). Insulin and glucagon are equally vital in managing blood glucose, making sure the body functions well. Glucose, which comes from the food we eat, is important for every body system. A decline in the blood glucose level below its normal range causes the nervous system to function erratically because glucose is its main source of energy. Insulin and glucagon hormones partner†¦show more content†¦Some of the fatty acids are converted by the liver into acidic ketones as fats are broken down, (Lienhard, G., 1992), which are released into the blood stream. Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. Insulin secretion is triggered by high blood glucose level and increased parasympathetic stimulation that is associated with digestion of a meal. Decreased insulin secretion results from decreasing blood glucose levels and from stimulation by the sympathetic division of the nervous system (Seeley and Stephens, 2005). Sympathetic stimulation of the pancreas increase during physical activities. Decreased insulin levels allow blood glucose to be conserved to provide the brain with adequate glucose and to allow other tissues to metabolize fatty acids and glycogen stored in the cells. Insulin binds to membrane–bound receptors and, either directly or indirectly, increases the rate of glucose and amino acid uptake in different tissues. For insulin, the major target tissues are the the area of the hypothalamus that controls appetite, called the satiety centre. liver, adipose tissue, muscles and Glucose is converted to glycogen and fat and the amino acids are used to synthesize protein. Storage of excess glucose for energy. After eating — when insulin levels are high — excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen (Marieb, 2012). Between meals — when insulin levels are low — the

Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists Free Essays

The list below though not exhaustive but have been potential dilemmas that international psychologists ace during the execution Of their services in a culturally diverse population: Linguistic competencies- A case in point of such a situation is where immigrants travel in host community and want to use the health opportunities of that community. The medium of exchange for the host community is mainly English and say the immigrant is from a Chinese background. The children of most immigrants tend to adjust quickly in terms of linguistic abilities and therefore are most often interpreters for their parents. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists or any similar topic only for you Order Now A parent of such cultural background seeking mental health services ill rely on the children to interpret for them. The dilemma here is the international psychologist is bound by law not to expose a patient’s sensitive document to a third party and also how can the international psychologist ascertained that the patient clearly understood the informed consent interpreted by the child. The steps taken in such a scenario is the need for bilingual staff to facilitate the care of culturally diverse patients (Congress, 2004). Practitioners legal obligation versus workplace policies- Davidson, (201 0, up. 70) reported that workers within the social services will be unfrosted by the dilemma between acting in the ethical best interest of direct service recipients and acting according to the law. For instance, an international psychologist working with an organization in a culture where children or minors work to fend living for their parents will be faced with a dilemma as to whether he is legally obligated to report this illegal activities of the organization or has an obligation to the organization to report. Using individual participants to represent the whole population- In his voice thread, Dry. Larsen (2014) noted that most hypothesis used in testing cross cultural research uses individual participants as a unit of analysis to aggregate an overall score for each culture. We are cautioned by the video on cross cultural competence that when working with culturally diverse population, we should delve into the demographics and composition of the group so that at the end all benefits and risk should be proportionately distributed. The ethical issue that arises when we stereotype or generalize the attribute of one culture to encompass the whole is that relationships among the measured rabbles in one culture will not necessarily translate to the same relationship in another culture. How to cite Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists, Papers

Service Organization Plays Out Capacities †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Service Organization Plays Out Its Capacities? Answer: Introduction Basically, a service organization plays out its capacities and operations by organizing its back and front stage divisions, which create and offer products and services by understanding the requirements of clients. This paper includes the reflective essay on different aspects of service in hospitality organization. This essay will examine the flow- diagrams for front and back stage operations of a service industry association, i.e. InterContinental Hotels. Further, it will clarify the importance of service experience and service encounter. Toward the end, it will elaborate the managerial implications by looking at the flow charts for different stages. Flow Charts Flow charts of service delivery is produced and outlined by considering the standard of services, culture, needs and desires of visitors and guests and services of contenders. Service implies understanding the desires and requests of clients, procedure of offering the services, assessment of the obstacles and associated costs, which requires for the administration of the standard of quality in service organizations (Armstrong et al, 2015). In this report, flow charts of hospitality organization, i.e. InterContinental Hotels, are created, which will be exceptionally helpful in dealing with the method of developing and conveyance of data, services to achieve the goal of business in more operative and expert way. Front Stage Flow Chart I am working at InterContinental Hotels, where I have seen their operations and flow of services. Hotels are using front office flow chart for managing the data and services according to the international trends and to meet the expectations and requirements of clients. When I was working at InterContinental Hotels, I witnessed that the main aspects of front stage operations of service organization is assisting in improving the communication and interaction with the visitors to collect the data about these guests and then discuss with the back stage departments about offering services to customers according to their needs and expectations (Bitner and Wang, 2014). When I joined this well-recognized organization, i.e. InterContinental Hotels, then I saw that the organizations front stage flow chart incudes various activities and steps. These activities includes like; making reservation for the visitors, managing the check-in details, organizing the waiting area and operating the rooms. Additionally, the front stage department also notes about the check-out details. At this hotel group, my role is to assist the guests related to the hotel and food services (Grnroos, Edvardsson, and Sheth, 2013). At InterContinental Hotels, I experienced that front stage staff of hotel are performing the duties and responsibilities as per predetermined schedule and standard and procedure to attain the goals of organization. After looking at the front stage flow chart of the InterContinental Hotels, I can say that this process of the organization is effective and assisting the hotels in attaining its preset objectives. The front office flow chart of this hotel reflects that the organization is making decisions on the basis of information and details of customers, which are provided by the reception members for every client. This flow chart directs the back stage staff for enhancing the service delivery (Srensen et al, 2013). I felt that the chart and process is supporting InterContinental Hotels to have resources and organize the functions and operations as per the expectations and needs of guests and current trends in the industry. Back Stage Flow Chart For InterContinental Hotels, back office process has a significant role in executing the internal functions and operations. When I worked at InterContinental Hotels, I come to know that there are some services and operations, which are executed by back office. These functions are such as; attending the phone calls and replying the mails by filling the forms (You, 2014). Moreover, other operations are like; cleaning of rooms and waiting area, housekeeping and post operational functions. These activities have a significant role in maintaining the standards and quality of services. It assists in developing operational plan of organization. This plan is recommended by the senior leaders and managers by utilizing the information that is provided by the staff of front stage. Regardless of this, I believed that back stage flow chart has flexibility because it can be altered by senior management as per the situations and dealing with the needs and demands of travellers. ; Significance of service encounter Service encounter is an important aspect in the service delivery by any service organization. It includes the exchange between the customers and service providers, in which clients experience two different aspects, i.e. behavioral and relationship aspect and service aspect. It has significant value in the field of hotel and hospitality services. For InterContinental Hotels, that is operating business operations in hospitality sector, needs managing the quality and standards to endure the current position in the market (Kindstrm and Kowalkowski, 2014). Taking personal experience at InterContinental Hotels, I realized that for getting competitive advantage, management of hotels always makes efforts to improve the service encounter by looking at the current industry trends and requirements of potential customers. The organization thinks that effective interaction between customers and organization impact the quality and process of delivery services, that consists of different types of service encounter with the management and employees. There may be three types of service encounter at InterContinental Hotels, i.e. remote counter, indirect counter and direct personal counter. At the hotels, the management makes the decisions after considering all the forms of service encounter (Grnroos and Grnroos, 2016). After that, the organization executes its activities and operations and assigns the tasks and responsibilities to the team. This entire procedure of hotels can assist it in enhancing the effectiveness and productivity of the organiza tional activities to get the predetermined goals. Working at InterContinental Hotels, I found that they are providing high quality services to their customers. It shows that their service encounter was better than other competitors in the hospitality industry. I realized that the hotels are very good in delivering services on time and maintaining the quality of food menus. Along with this, they are offering spas, gym and some other complimentary services. In spite of this, there may be some factors, which can raise issues in the successful service encounter (Mattsson and Chadee, 2015). These issues are like; immoral behavior of back and front stage staff and some frustrating demands of guests. After looking at InterContinental Hotels, I analyzed that this service organization is implementing remote, indirect and direct service encounter for keeping the best quality of hotel services. This hotel group is preferably using indirect service encounter to understand the demands and expectations of visitors. It is done by conducting market research and taking feedback from guests. Moreover, this organization is also considering the safety and security in offering successful service encounter. Managerial Implications It is very important to understand the managerial implications of service encounter at hotels. The value and worth of its business activities can be monitored by evaluating the service encounter between workforce and clients. Communication process plays a vital role in this, as it helps in analyzing the potential and needs of guests for sustaining the efficacy of service quality. As per my experience at InterContinental Hotels, I can say that service encounter and appropriate analysis of activities and services may have huge impact on managerial effectiveness and brand image of hotels. I came to know that there are some activities like; attending the visitors, listening to their needs and offering them some additional services, have large impact on process of management of any service organization. Though, InterContinental Hotels possess good brand reputation and offering best quality services, but still there is absence of service encounter. It is affecting the managerial approach o f organization adversely (Grnroos, 2007). The management should take some actions to fill the gaps. The managers should implement the strategies to know the needs and expectations of clients. The workforce at hotels needs to become more efficient and ethical. They have to understand their responsibilities towards hotels and guests. After this analysis, I suggest that this managerial implication of InterContinental Hotels may help them to achieve its targets and improve the service delivery. Thus, this reflective essay can help in understanding some aspects of service organizations. The organizations require establishing the front stage and back stage flow chart to allocate the services to different teams. Service encounter is an essential part for the any service organization, especially for the hospitality organizations; like; InterContinental Hotels. References Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., Harker, M. and Brennan, R., 2015.Marketing: an introduction. Pearson Education. Bitner, M.J. and Wang, H.S., 2014. 11. Service encounters in service marketing research.Handbook of service marketing research,221. Grnroos, C, 2007, Service management and marketing: customer management in service competition. John Wiley Sons. Grnroos, C. and Grnroos, C., 2016. Internationalization strategies for services: a retrospective.Journal of Services Marketing,30(2), pp.129-132. Grnroos, C., Edvardsson, B. and Sheth, J.N., 2013.Service management. SAGE Publications. Kindstrm, D. and Kowalkowski, C., 2014. Service innovation in business-?to-?business firms.Journal of Business Industrial Marketing,29(2). Mattsson, J. and Chadee, D., 2015. Customer satisfaction in tourist service encounters. InProceedings of the 1995 world marketing congress(pp. 397-397). Springer International Publishing. Srensen, F., Sundbo, J. and Mattsson, J., 2013. Organisational conditions for service encounter-based innovation.Research Policy,42(8), pp.1446-1456. You, F, 2014, Design and Realization of Hotel Management System, Computer Modelling New Technologies.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Origin Company for Australia Pacific LNG

Question: Discuss about theOrigin Company for Australia Pacific LNG. Answer: Introduction This paper presents a comprehensive formal report for a stakeholder (potential investor) that interprets the annual report of an Australian company (Origin Energy) and makes appropriate recommendations. The core business of Origin Energy is to natural gas exploration and production, energy retailing, electricity generation and Australia Pacific LNG. Origin Energy has a diverse exploration portfolio. This entails the Cooper, Surat and Bowen basins in the Central Australia. It also include the Otway as well as Bass basins in the Southern Australia. The company further has interest in Perth Basin alongside Browse in Western Australia. Origin further operates externally in Kupe gas field in Taranaki basin of NZ. Origin holds interest in NZs Canterbury basin. Besides the companys local gas operations; Origin works with ConocoPhillips alongside Sinopec in Australian Pacific LNG. This is a joint venture that deliver the largest Australian coal seam gas (CSG) to the LNG export project in Que ensland. Origins energy retailing has approximately 4.217.0 million customers. It services both huge energy customers and residential alongside small business market. Origin commodities offering encompass natural gas, electricity and LPG. The company is also leading provider of the low-carbon products like GreenPower, solar PV and Green Gas. Origin also operates one of the countrys hugest power generation portfolios with 6010.0 of capacity. The firm is further active in renewable energy. The firm has spent many years to developing in this arena. As a potential investor who needs to invest in Origin Energy, this paper needs to provide key analysis of its financial performance, financial position and the cash-flow management. The investor needs to know the profitability, cash management and liquidity of the Origin Energy and well as detailed understanding of the , companys performance and management of the company. This will include P/E ratio = (Market Price/Earnings per share), Earning per sha re ratio = (Profit after tax/No. of ordinary shares), dividends per share ratio = (Total dividends of the year/total number of ordinary shares) *100, dividends yield percentage = (dividends per share/market per share) *100, profitability and liquidity ratios to get an overall view of how the company is performing. Profitability, cash management and liquidity The earning per share of the company can be categorized as diluted and basic. The basic EPS for year June, 2015, June 2016 and June 2017 are given as (0.52), (0.37) and (1.27) whereas the diluted EPS for the same years are given as (0.52), (0.37) and (1.27) same as the basic ones. The EBITDA for the same years are presented as 475, 426 and (1,178). The dividend for the last three years have also been presented as 0.48, 0.11 and no dividend in 2017. The dividend payout ratio is given as 116.3 in 2015 and there was no dividend in 2016 and 2017. The dividend yield percentage for the last three years have been given as 4.39, 5.64 and 1.7 for 2014, 2015 and 2016. In terms of profitability, the EBT margin for the company for the past four years are given as 5.15, -4.62, -6.18 and -15.21. The ROE has been given as ratio has been given as 3.97, -5.03, -4.33 and -17.19. The return on invested capital for 2014 through 2017 include 4.16, -1.79, -1.28 and -8.63. In terms of cash flow ratios, the free cash flow/net income from 2014 to 2017 include 2.56, -0.15, -1.21 and -0.39. The free cash flow/sales percentage for the same period included 9.35, 0.86, 5.98 and 6.38. In terms of liquidity/financial health, the current ration from 2014 to 2017 include 0.97, 1.62, 1.24 and 1.3 while quick ratio include 0.86, 0.48, 0.92 and 0.71. The financial leverage include 2.32, 2.62, 1.99 and 2.21 whereas the debt/equity ratio for 2014 to 2017 include 0.67, 0.93, 0.66 and 0.74. Companys performance, management of the company The financial results of the company has not been performing well in the last three years. As reflected in the analysis, it is clear that Origin is not promising for the investment. There has been a decline trend in most of the ration as indicated in the above analysis. For example, in terms of profitability, there has been a decreasing from the 2014 through 2017. The ROE percentages declined to negative values from +3.97 in 2014 to -17.19 in the year 2017. This is an indication of less performance and negative returns and hence the investor needs not to invest in the company. Also, in terms of the return on capital invested there has been a decreasing trend in from 2014 to 2017 from +4.16 in 2014 to -8.63 in 2017. This is a further justification that things are not well in Origin and hence it is not appealing for the potential investors (Henderson, Peirson, Herbohn and Howieson 2015). Also the interest coverage also show a declining trend between 2014 and 2017 from +2.65 to negative 2.75. Such decreasing trend was also noticed in net margin that decreased from +3.65 to -16.31 between 2014 and 2017. The asset turnover (average) and the return on assets also declined between the periods. Also, financial leverage (average) recorded a declining trend from 2014 to 2017 from positive 2.32 to 2.21. The firm is not also appealing for potential investment in terms of its financial performance. For example, the earnings per share showed a declining trend between 2014 and 2017 indicated by +0.4 in 2014 to -1.26 in 2017. This means that this trend will still continue and hence the potential investor will lose his investment in case he invests in the company. Also, the dividends showed a declining trend between the period with 2014, 2015 and 2017 figure being +0.49, +0.48, +0.1. This is a clear indication of the decrease in profitability of the firm and hence less dividends being paid. The dividend payout ratio also showed were rising between 2012 and 2015 at 75.9 and 116.3 but there were no dividend payout in the subsequent years through 2017. The operating cash flow also showed a declining trend and reduced from 2227 in 2014 to 1289 in 2017 while free cash flow per share were rising and decreasing between the periods. In terms of growth performance, the dividend yield percentage increased between 2014 (4.39) and 2015 (5.64) but sharply dropped to 1.70 in 2016. This was a clear indication of rough times ahead in the company and hence not advisable for any investment by the potential investor. The current market potential is as weak as can be seen from the analysis of key ratios. This can be demonstrated by the declining profitability of the firm. It is advisable that the potential investor need not to invest in the firm until some promising figures are realized which, however, do not seem to be the case any soon (Bjrnson, Hoydis, Kountouris and Debbah 2014). Origin, however, may have a future potential by when the returns on massive investments in the renewable energy picks up well. The company will still do better in the future by changing the strategies and ensuring that only better strategies are prioritized. The firms current business current business strategy is the integrated energy company that is operational throughout 3 segments of energy supply chain including natural gas as well as oil exploration and production, energy retailing as well as electricity generation. The company draws its strength via the integration-fuel integrated generated and the retailer. The firms strategic focus stays on competitive segments of Australian as well as New Zealand energy markets with potential opportunities in rapid growing energy market in the Asian region. Origin further seeks to deepen the integration within the business crossways energy supply chain to become more effective manger in terms of risks and create growth opportunities (Flammer 2015). I terms of CSR rating, Origin is rated 56 CSR rating compared to all the companies. The energy production means that the firm has to interact hugely with the environment. However, Origin undertakes to disclose the effects of its operation on the environment and what it is doing to minimize the risks to the community where it operates. However, the company has not disclosed all the non-financial information and this is critical to the potential investors since it determines the reputation of the company and hence profits. From the sustainability report, the firm has disclosed its developments in the renewable energy as measure to be sustainable and create the sustainable environment (Ngo, Larsson and Marzetta 2013). One of the major strength in the management of Origin relies on the existence of qualified and motivated staff. This is critical to the potential investor as this has a direct impact on the organization in future financial years. For example, the management team thrives to ensure that change the business model and strategy by ensuring that they engage in the production of green energy which will boost their efficiency. The potential investor is more concerned with the long-term viability of the business for continuous dividend payment. Therefore, with the qualified and determined Origin management team, it is expected that once the renewable energy production is fully implemented the firm will starting improving in terms of its financial performance and profitability and this will attract the investors as the stock performance will improve (Minton, Taillard and Williamson 2014). Origin Energy has adopted various types of remuneration trends from last year to this year for the highest earners. For example, the firm is using the stock for its employees. This is essential as it motivates workers to work hard. Many employees are taking the stock option compensation and this can be attracted to the potential investors who would want to see the stock performance and the dividend payout ratio and yield rising. However, Origin pays less than other companies in terms variation in wages (Lewis, Walls and Dowell 2014). This is a critical concern to the investor as it might lead to staff turnover and hence making the company to lose its qualified and determined staff. The company also give non-wage benefits including the bonuses for better performers. The bonuses are means of motivation its workers and this creates an increasingly inspired workforce in the organization. The current management structure and ownership structure of the firm is under the oversight of the Board. Origin Energys Board is under the chairmanship of H. Kevin Mccann who is an independent non-executive. There are other 8 directors who help in run the Origin at the board levels (Gillingham, Rapson and Wagner 2016). Some board members are non-executive whiles others are executive directors. Apart from the Board, Origin has an executive management team under the executive General Manager Energy markets, Frank Calabria, group general counsel and company secretary, Andrew Clarke. Executive general manager major development project Andrew Stock and other five executive members. The institution ownership of Origin accounts for 18.57% while insider ownership account for 0.13%, the general public ownership accounts 80.94% and private accounts for 0.15%. Conclusion/Recommendation The main need for potential investor in Origin is to invest in the company stock/shares. But, as things stand now, Origin is not performing well and has not even paid the dividend in 2016. Therefore, it is recommended to the potential investor not to invest in Origin at the moment. There is a need to wait for the company to fully benefit from its potential integrated business strategy. Investment in the firm at the moment will make the potential investor lose. This is because Origin Energys profitability is declining as indicated by the negative profitability figures. For example, EBT margin for the company for the past four years are given as 5.15, -4.62, -6.18 and -15.21. The economic cause for lack of profitability is due to the 2.20 billon loss at the APLNG. That even led to the firm declaring no dividend in 2016/17. This means the firm is not profitable enough for the potential investor to invest. As has been acknowledged in the report, there has not been dividend paid out in 20 16 and the trend will not change in 2017 either. Therefore, the potential investor needs to look for new business with rising and predictable performance to invest their money in to get attractive returns on investment. Origin Energy is still in the process of adopting the renewable energy and this will bring more benefits to the firm once full integrated in its trio-business model. There is a promising future in the firm coupled with its strong Board of Management and the Executive Management. References Barbose, G.L., Goldman, C.A., Hoffman, I.M. and Billingsley, M., 2013. 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