Sunday, May 24, 2020

Levels and Scales of Measurement in Statistics

Level of measurement refers to the particular way that a variable is measured within scientific research, andÃ‚  scale of measurement refers to the particular tool that a researcher uses to sort the data in an organized way, depending on the level of measurement that they have selected. Choosing the level and scale of measurement areÃ‚  important parts of the research design processÃ‚  because they are necessary for systematized measuring and categorizing of data, and thus for analyzing it and drawing conclusions from it as well that are considered valid. Within science, there are four commonly used levels and scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. These were developed byÃ‚  psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens, who wrote about them in a 1946 article inÃ‚  Science, titled On the Theory of Scales of Measurement. Each level of measurement and its corresponding scale is able to measure one or more of the four properties of measurement, which include identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and a minimum value of zero. There is a hierarchy of these different levels of measurement. With the lower levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal), assumptions are typically less restrictive and data analyses are less sensitive. At each level of the hierarchy, the current level includes all the qualities of the one below it in addition to something new. In general, it is desirable to have higher levels of measurement (interval or ratio) rather than a lower one. LetÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s examine each level of measurement and its corresponding scale in order from lowest to highest in the hierarchy. The Nominal Level and Scale A nominal scale is used to name the categories within the variables you use in your research. This kind of scale provides no ranking or ordering of values; it simply provides a name for each category within a variable so that you can track them among your data. Which is to say, it satisfies the measurement of identity, and identity alone. Common examples within sociology include the nominal tracking ofÃ‚  sex (male or female),Ã‚  raceÃ‚  (white, Black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, etc.),Ã‚  and classÃ‚  (poor, working class, middle class, upper class). Of course, there are many other variables one can measure on a nominal scale. The nominal level of measurement is also known as a categorical measureÃ‚  and is considered qualitative in nature. When doing statistical research and using this level of measurement, one would use the mode, or the most commonly occurring value, as aÃ‚  measure of central tendency. The Ordinal Level and Scale Ordinal scales are used when a researcher wants to measure something that is not easily quantified, like feelings or opinions. Within such a scale the different values for a variable are progressively ordered, which is what makes the scale useful and informative. It satisfies both the properties of identity and of magnitude. However, it is important to note that as such a scale is not quantifiableÃ¢â‚¬â€the precise differences between the variable categories are unknowable. Within sociology, ordinal scales are commonly used to measure peoples views and opinions on social issues,Ã‚  like racismÃ‚  and sexism, or how important certain issues are to them in the context of a political election. For example, if a researcher wants to measure the extent to which a population believes that racism is a problem, they could ask a question like How big a problem is racism in our society today? and provide the following response options: its a big problem, it is somewhat a problem, it is a small problem, and racism is not a problem. When using this level and scale of measurement, it is the median which denotes central tendency. The Interval Level and Scale Unlike nominal and ordinal scales, an interval scale is a numeric one that allows for ordering of variablesÃ‚  and provides a precise, quantifiable understanding of the differences between them (the intervals between them). This means that it satisfies the three properties of identity, magnitude,Ã‚  andÃ‚  equal intervals. Age is a common variable that sociologists track using an interval scale, like 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. One can also turn non-interval, ordered variable categories into an interval scale to aidÃ‚  statistical analysis. For example,Ã‚  it is common to measure income as a range, like \$0-\$9,999; \$10,000-\$19,999; \$20,000-\$29,000, and so on. These ranges can be turned into intervals that reflect the increasing level of income, by using 1 to signal the lowest category, 2 the next, then 3, etc. Interval scales are especially useful because they not only allow for measuring the frequency and percentage of variable categories within our data, they also allow us to calculate theÃ‚  mean, in addition to the median, mode. Importantly, with the interval level of measurement, one can also calculateÃ‚  the standard deviation. The Ratio Level and Scale The ratio scale of measurement is nearly the same as the interval scale, however, it differs in that it has an absolute value of zero, and so it is the only scale that satisfies all four properties of measurement. A sociologist would use a ratio scale to measure actual earned income in a given year, not divided into categorical ranges, but ranging from \$0 upward. Anything that can be measured from absolute zero can be measured with a ratio scale, like for example the number of children a person has, theÃ‚  number of elections a person has voted in, or theÃ‚  number of friends who are of a race different from the respondent. One can run all the statistical operations as can be done with the interval scale, and even more with the ratio scale. In fact, it is so called because one can create ratios and fractions from the data when one uses a ratio level of measurement and scale. UpdatedÃ‚  by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Endocrine Part Of The Pancreas - 1609 Words

The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of pancreatic islets (islets of the Langerhans). Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells of the pancreas. Both of these hormones are secreted depending on the blood glucose levels. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets secrete glucagon and beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin (Marieb, 2012). Insulin and glucagon are equally vital in managing blood glucose, making sure the body functions well. Glucose, which comes from the food we eat, is important for every body system. A decline in the blood glucose level below its normal range causes the nervous system to function erratically because glucose is its main source of energy. Insulin and glucagon hormones partnerÃ¢â‚¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â‚¬ ¦Some of the fatty acids are converted by the liver into acidic ketones as fats are broken down, (Lienhard, G., 1992), which are released into the blood stream. Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. Insulin secretion is triggered by high blood glucose level and increased parasympathetic stimulation that is associated with digestion of a meal. Decreased insulin secretion results from decreasing blood glucose levels and from stimulation by the sympathetic division of the nervous system (Seeley and Stephens, 2005). Sympathetic stimulation of the pancreas increase during physical activities. Decreased insulin levels allow blood glucose to be conserved to provide the brain with adequate glucose and to allow other tissues to metabolize fatty acids and glycogen stored in the cells. Insulin binds to membraneÃ¢â‚¬â€œbound receptors and, either directly or indirectly, increases the rate of glucose and amino acid uptake in different tissues. For insulin, the major target tissues are the the area of the hypothalamus that controls appetite, called the satiety centre. liver, adipose tissue, muscles and Glucose is converted to glycogen and fat and the amino acids are used to synthesize protein. Storage of excess glucose for energy. After eating Ã¢â‚¬â€ when insulin levels are high Ã¢â‚¬â€ excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen (Marieb, 2012). Between meals Ã¢â‚¬â€ when insulin levels are low Ã¢â‚¬â€ the

Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists Free Essays

The list below though not exhaustive but have been potential dilemmas that international psychologists ace during the execution Of their services in a culturally diverse population: Linguistic competencies- A case in point of such a situation is where immigrants travel in host community and want to use the health opportunities of that community. The medium of exchange for the host community is mainly English and say the immigrant is from a Chinese background. The children of most immigrants tend to adjust quickly in terms of linguistic abilities and therefore are most often interpreters for their parents. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists or any similar topic only for you Order Now A parent of such cultural background seeking mental health services ill rely on the children to interpret for them. The dilemma here is the international psychologist is bound by law not to expose a patientÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s sensitive document to a third party and also how can the international psychologist ascertained that the patient clearly understood the informed consent interpreted by the child. The steps taken in such a scenario is the need for bilingual staff to facilitate the care of culturally diverse patients (Congress, 2004). Practitioners legal obligation versus workplace policies- Davidson, (201 0, up. 70) reported that workers within the social services will be unfrosted by the dilemma between acting in the ethical best interest of direct service recipients and acting according to the law. For instance, an international psychologist working with an organization in a culture where children or minors work to fend living for their parents will be faced with a dilemma as to whether he is legally obligated to report this illegal activities of the organization or has an obligation to the organization to report. Using individual participants to represent the whole population- In his voice thread, Dry. Larsen (2014) noted that most hypothesis used in testing cross cultural research uses individual participants as a unit of analysis to aggregate an overall score for each culture. We are cautioned by the video on cross cultural competence that when working with culturally diverse population, we should delve into the demographics and composition of the group so that at the end all benefits and risk should be proportionately distributed. The ethical issue that arises when we stereotype or generalize the attribute of one culture to encompass the whole is that relationships among the measured rabbles in one culture will not necessarily translate to the same relationship in another culture. How to cite Ethical dilemmas can international psychologists, Papers